I commonly get asked the above question by friends who want to get into hardware prototyping for the first time and have a project idea. I thought I'd share my input and show the questions I normally ask in the form of a flow chart. Some notes based on feedback:
- Multithreading can be done on an arduino, but akin to the internet question, it will take more effort and time than on a Raspberry Pi.
- Some paths could lead to you using both - for example, you might need a complex algorithm to parse some data which then displays it repeatedly on an LED matrix (see Amy Mather's Game of Life project). I left this out because I decided it would complicate the simplicity of the flow chart.
- Analogue IO could probably also go on there which would lead to arduino. Meh.
- Some paths could point to either I guess. Again, meh.
Please feel free to spread this flowchart around if it's useful to you, but if you can credit this to me then please do :)